The Nanoplasmid™ vector has shown success for both indirect use ( as for viral vectors and transposons manufacturing) and for direct use, as an effective, safe, and economical preferred vector for gene therapy and manufacturing. It performs favorably compared to legacy (antibiotic resistance) plasmids and more modern alternatives (such as minicircles, midges, MIPs and doggy bones) that are either inefficient or that require cumbersome and costly post-purification processing – and/or are not regulatory compliant (antibiotic-free). In addition, the Nanoplasmid’s origin of replication (R6K) has host-restricted replication, compared to traditional plasmids’ promiscuity of replication throughout gram negative hosts. In summary, the Nanoplasmid™ is an ideal non-viral vector for gene therapy of human cells and tissues, offering improved expression and duration of expression, as well as an excellent safety profile, ease and economy of purification. Today, Nanoplasmids are being used by more than 100 gene therapy and immunotherapy organizations worldwide.